One special way of creating perspective which landscapers use time and time again to create depth is atmosphere. The science behind it is quite complex but the summery is that as things get further away from us, they get lighter in value and more desaturated. In hue they will shift towards azure and blue side of the spectrum.
Now how can that be used? Because of the layer of air covering it, the contrast of the objects decreases along with its darkness. This can be used to create depth or push a character or a plane back in to space which would effectively push every thing else closer to us.
There are other aspects to it. For example the quality of the texture far away. As things get further away from us their texture density would reduce and as they get closer naturally we could see more details.
In a painting you could use this to determine distance without the use of perspective. If you put a red ship with lots of detail on it that lays 2. Kilometer away according to the perspective of your piece, the viewer would instantly know that either the planet the painting is set on has no atmosphere, and the lenses of the camera has been focused on far away (which requires everything else to be blurred and the two vanishing point being really really Really far away from each other) or that this is a mistake on your part.